“Looking involves learning to interpret and, like other practices, looking involves relationships of power.”( Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright 1) Which means we have the power to look at things and have the power to conclude and based our own opinion on what we see even though it might be different from what others may interpret it to be. With this power of looking at, let’s say an object or person it can be seen as said from the reading as “an array of emotions and responses like pleasure, desire, or disgust, anger, curiosity, shock, or confusion.” ( Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright 1)  If again can also be different ways of looking at things.” We invest the images we create and encounter on a daily basis with significant power-for instance, the power to conjure an absent person, the power to calm or incite to action, the power to persuade or mystify.”( Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright 1) like for instance ads that we see on billboards or commercials we see throughout TV trying make their products as a means of trying to sell their product and make it the most appealing to the viewer’s eyes and pursue them into buying whatever they are offering.

 Image     Image   

 “Spectacle it cannot be understood as a mere visual excess produced by mass-media technologies. It is a worldview that has actually been materialized, that has become an objective reality5. So in other words society today is very influenced by the media it of course is worldwide to the public. Like for example Miley Cyrus at the VMAS which was a huge scandal and from this a lot of young girls may have then idolize this idea of this concept of “twerking” just because it’s what they see through TV and magazines and videos and even social medias and famous singers such as Miley Cyrus. Also from the reading of the society of the spectacle it says that “Conversely, real life is materially invaded by the contemplation of the spectacle, and ends up absorbing it and aligning itself with it. Objective reality is present on both sides. Each of these seemingly fixed concepts has no other basis than its transformation into its opposite: reality emerges within the spectacle, and the spectacle is real. This reciprocal alienation is the essence and support of the existing society”. (Debord, Guy 8) which again this example sums up my example and visual performance in mass media has and could change over time.


 “Hegemony is a state or condition of a culture arrived at through negotiation or struggle over meanings, laws, and social relationships.” (viewers making mean 54) So therefore society is dominated by laws and leadership and social groups. Like from the reading they make reference to an atomic bomb and how when we see a picture of an atomic bomb some might automatically think of as said from the reading the cold war and the rights of nations to build destructive weapons however who is to say that the meaning of that image is really what the people view it has. What if for example someone happened to take a picture of an atomic bomb really isn’t referring to the cold war or to making mass destructive weapons.

Image      Image

“Publicity is the culture of the consumer society. it propagates through images that society’s belief in itself. There are several reasons why these images use the laguage of oil painiting. Oil painting, before it was anything else, was a celebration of private property. As an art-form it derived from the principle that you are what you have.” (Berger, John 139) So publicizing such things like oil painting back then was a symbol of what you have like today many people publicize having fancy cars and purses and clothes etc. which again from the media which protrays people like rappers with fancy things like nice cars and clothes etc. may come off to some people as “having money” or even “looking successful” which in my opinion this can attract the younger crowd. Which relates to comsuption although someone many be looking at someone with these fancy cars and clothes someone else may interpret it as seeing something like maybe they just have these things to feel better about themselves or make people think they live this lavish lifestyle, because like the example of hegemony no one has the same concept and same perception of things.


The definition of object is anything that is visible or tangible and is relatively stable in form. Like a painting one can observe it and look at it and try and she the meaning of it. Which correlates to what I just said from the reading the exmaple of objectivity can be “A work of art can also be a potenital commodity, a vessel of financial speculation and exchange”. (Krueger, Barbara 3) which correlates wih the concept of gaze and how we are viewing the object but the gaze of the object is only focus is the object like for instance like in this paintingImage

 we can clearly see the image and “the object gazing at the subject as screen, turning the subject thereby into the object of the object,”(Jennifer Reinhardt) Pedagogy is a concept a teaching of a sort of subject like imagery and culture and how we are learning different concepts of what we see. For instance sexism we can see a photo of a woman like from the reading ways of seeing how in the reading there is a picture of Mrs.Siddons is just sitting down and it says she is not seen as “glamorous because she isn’t see enviable” she doesn’t seem to be what most people would say arousing to the public eye yet like for example as the author mentioned which is why Andy Warhol shows a picture of Marilyn Monroe”( Berger, John 146) because she is more appealing and like some would say sexy sales. This can tie into Representation and how we can see how one simple image can represent what a person is or the visual of what makes things what they are, like I said before about what we wear or do can be seen a representation of a certain nature to what we see around us. 

Image                               Image   

 Popular culture is basically influenced by mass media which innovates such music, images, memes etc. It attracts a certain group and it also depends on the generation like for instance as we once talked about in class on how the popular culture today being very skinny is seen as the new sexy rather than how women like Marilyn Monroe who was a plus size model was seen as being sexy a couple of years back then. Popular culture can be very misleading, however another example given from the reading is “manufactures who produce art reproductions such as (posters,t-shirts,greeting cards, etc.) and the consumers who purchase and display these items give value to the work of art by making it available to many people as an item of popular culture.”( Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright 35) So in all popular culture can be seen sometimes as a positive aspect and useful in the sense of keeping what is seen as art into the new generation of popular culture today.


                                                             Works cited

“object.” The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms by Christine Ammer. Houghton Mifflin Company. 16 Feb. 2014. <Dictionary.comhttp://dictionary.reference.com/browse/object>.

Reinhardt, Jennifer. “Gaze.” Gaze. Theories of Media, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

Sturken, Marita, and Lisa Cartwright. 2009. Practices of looking: an introduction to visual culture. New York: Oxford University Press

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. New York: Viking, 1973

 Krueger, Barbara. “Arts and Leisure.” Remote Control. N.p.: n.p., 1993. 1989

 Debord, Guy. “Chapter 1 Section 4.” Society of the Spectacle. Detroit: Black and Red, 1977.

Viewers make meaning


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