Media Ownership Across Various Platforms

Blog 3: Less than a dozen corporations control the entire media landscape; making it virtually impossible to escape influence as a viewer, listener, and reader. Not only do these institutions control what we view on television, but a corporation such as Clear Channel is the largest radio station owner in the country. These media conglomerates have ownership in television, film, and print where consumers have no choice to be bombarded with relentless campaigns that don’t fulfill community needs.

Women comprise over 51 percent of the U.S. population but hold less than 7 percent of all TV and radio station licenses. People of color make up over 36 percent of the U.S. population but hold just over 7 percent of radio licenses and 3 percent of TV licenses. Of the 1,349 commercial television stations in the United States: 4.97%, are owned by women and 3.26%, are owned by minorities. Women and minorities make up 51 and 33% of the population, respectively. Lack of media diversity leads to poor coverage of issues regarding minority groups, limited availability of roles for minority actors which allows more opportunities to represent more than the common stereotype and it reduces amount of information available to non-English speaking communities.

Very few companies have a tight grip over the services we like to use. The public i disillusioned with the idea that they have choices as to what services they can purchase, when in reality, it’s all the same thing.

In addition to the oligopoly of ownership, media companies use different different platforms to expand their respective stories and use this as well as synergistic storytelling as an economic ploy that ensures ownership of the specific intellectual property across the multiple platforms. The Matrix movie trilogy is a great example of such because, with great success, the story is told through the video game, a number of animated features, and comic book short stories. A story does not necessarily have to be told across different platforms as unique experiences are offered to the audience. The nationwide scavenger hunt launched prior to Batman: The Dark Knight generated record breaking buzz even before the movie was released.


The Viral Campaign seen around the world

Companies use the technique of multimedia storytelling to allow their content to be displayed over a variety of media platforms. A lot of the time, however, they do not necessarily have to tell a story or experience. It does not necessarily have to remain coherent in that sense. It, more than anything, offers the audience options to interact with the specific product/service. And ultimately, it ensures the company has covered its entire basis as to how it can reach its audience. For example, ESPN broadcasts the SportsCenter on television, but viewers can also stay up to date through their ESPN SportsCenter app on the phones, ESPN Magazine, ESPN Radio, and they also have Watch ESPN online for those on computer.

The Halo video game franchise is one of the most successful franchises across multiple platforms. The bread and butter, of course, are from its award -wining video game series. The games expanded into best-selling novels, comic books, anime, live-action short-films, online parodies, and possibly film.

The original Halo video game trilogy began in 2001 on PC and Microsoft’s Xbox video game console. The game itself pushed the sales of Microsoft’s hardware. In between the sequels, novels were with and released they told he stories of other characters in the games. While not canon, each book old a story ta helped expand he Halo universe. And because the franchise is still such a world phenomenon, fans have he ability to produce their own web-shorts fueling the Halo fire even more.



All imagery are copyright of their respective owner. I do not own or am affiliated with these companies, and do not condone the use, or distribution of these images and/or videos. Use is solely restricted to informative and educational purposes.


Hooks, Bell. “Cultural Criticism and Transformation.” Media Education Transcript(1997): n. pag. ]<https://www.mediaed.org/assets/products/402/transcript_402.pdf&gt.

Lutz, Ashely. “These 6 Corporations Control 90% of the Media in America.” Buisness Insider.Published June 14, 2012. Web. http://www.businessinsider.com/these-6-corporations-control-90-of-the-media-in-america-2012-6.

“Who Owns the Media?.” . National Conference for Media Reform, 1 Jan. 2013. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://conference.freepress.net/ownership/chart&gt;.




Gimme a double tap.

How does taking a selfie change the look of your peers. Do you take it for them or do you take it because you want to? The general consensus is that it depends on why you’re taking them.

“It think it’s context-dependent,” says Dr. Josie Howard, M.D., to Refinery29. “It depends on how you use it. If you’re using it as a tool to document feeling good about yourself and you’re just taking mementos of living a great life, that’s fine.”

“Some women use it as a way to control how their image is portrayed in social media, which is completely fine.” Dr. Howard added “It may reset the industry standard of beauty to something more realistic.”

What about when you double tap a photo?

The Selfie


Works Cited:

Butler, Judith. “Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire”. Gender Trouble. 1999. Print.

Simmons, Rachel. “In Defense of the Selfie as a Tiny Burst of Girl Pride.” Slate Magazine. Slate, 21 Nov. 2013. Web. 9 Dec. 2013.

Weinstein, Adam. “The First Four Women to Pass Marine Infantry Training Took This Selfie.” Gawker. Gawker, 20 Nov. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

Does Anyone Really Understand What’s Going On?

By Ashley Okwuosa

In a society where sex sells, it’s hard not to be bombarded with images that propel the agenda. Sex, nudity and all the things that come with it, are used to push products. Now, it would be a lot easier to deal with if sex was our only problem, but unfortunately, sex, sexism, racism and skewed power structures are also part of the discussion. Why does this matter? Actually, the question should be, why should it matter. Well, in a society where constructed ideas of normalcy are disguised as race, gender, and so on, it would be criminal for us not to know how we are being targeted by the media, and the affects it has on us.

As Bell Hooks said in this video, media has become a pedagogy; a method through which we learn. Wether we realize it or not. Not only does the media teach us, it works to reinforce notions that we may have never questioned before, and in reality come to be okay with.

What is wrong with the video below?

I mean, what is really wrong with it? In the text, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitutions” by Judith Butler, she says “Gender is instituted through the stylization of the body and, hence, must be understood, as the mundane way in which bodily gestures, movements and enactments constitute the illusion of an abiding gendered self” (Butler, 392) These constructed ideas of gender are continuously propelled throughout the media, and we have internalized them. We don’t question what is wrong with ad’s like this. It’s either, we have become immune or we’re told that it’s not a big deal.


Image via Styleite

Above is an editorial from the online publication Buro 24/7. Well, the image is clear to see, but again what is wrong with this image? I was told that this was a poor attempt at an artistic representation. Major side eye. In the reading, “The Spectacle of The Other” Hall, discusses representation. Although, it’s hard for me to say, Miroslava Duma’s intention might not have been outrightly racist (It doesn’t make it any less) but what did this image represent. Racial power structures, Insensitivity, and everything but Art.

“Representation is a complex business, and especially when dealing with ‘difference’, it engages feelings, attitudes, and emotions in the viewer, at deeper levels than we can explain in our simple, common sense way” (Hall, 226)


Image via Ivysays.com


Image via Ivysays.com

The point that i’m trying to make, is that a lot of people don’t see the racism or sexism that is rife in today’s media. When we think of sexist ads, we immediately think about the Mad Men era (See below)

A quick google search  shows pulls up, ads from the mid 90’s first, before showing the most recent examples. The culture that we live in, isn’t fully aware of what we are up against, let alone it’s impact. We must learn to question the ads, question the motives of the companies, because silence and ignorance only feeds the monster.

Work Cited

1) Butler, Judith. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution. An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory pg. 393. Print

2) Hall, Stuart. Chapter 4 The Spectacle of the Other pg. 236. Print.

3) Hooks, Bell Cultural Criticism and Transformation (Video. Hyperlinked above)

* All Images are linked back to original source*

Branding the People

Let me first state that I come from a matriarchal family. Women were viewed as the leaders and heads of the family. I learned this through my mom and also through my great aunt and grandmother. Being from this background, my experience through patriarchal society is limited. Patriarchs to me are being phased out.


However, where the standards for this idea don’t apply is the mainstream media or popular culture. The images that are distributed through this medium employ both sexist and racist underlying themes. Like in the commercial for, “Summer’s Eve” that was shown during class, sexist.

I found an interesting conversation in the comments bellow:

Liz Thompson said, “If Summer’s Eve is trying to sell their product to women, why bother to piss most of them off with a dumb commercial like this? Also, it’s not even healthy. Don’t bother buying this shit.”

Three replies followed:

Zaya2 said, “It’s called a joke that most people get and laugh at. I’m sorry you didn’t get it and completely ostracize a product and/or group of people based on your own personal opinion on a singular video that was made for 33 seconds.”

Dorian Stark said, “SOmebody has sand in their vagina today….Maybe you need…summers eve.”

ProudAmericanLady said, “I love this commercial. No I LOVE this commercial. One of the best out there. If any one gets pissed off by it they need to grow up. Good job guys makes me never want to buy any other brand but yours.”

The first girl makes the connection of a woman’s product advertisement is basically all about the guy and the responses to her criticism of the commercial receive blow back.  An insult from one person and then two others that completely miss the connection she was making.

In Cutting Girls Down to Size, Jean Kilbourne states, “Advertisers are aware of their role and do not hesitate to take advantage of the insecurities and anxieties of young people, usually in the guise of solutions.”

This is a perfect example of those insecurities that she was talking about. In the commercial the woman couldn’t even say the word vagina, she referred to it as, “a woman’s v.” The commercial also attacked the insecurities of a man who after using a woman’s product had to establish that he wasn’t a woman through a decathlon of manliness.

The purpose of images is to capture the attention of the viewer, drawing them in and holding their gaze to create a memory and an experience. Advertising doesn’t necessarily sell you a product as much as it sells the sensory emotions that come equipped with the advertisement, not even the product.

But there are many ways to advertise and reach consumers take for example, what happened with the airline Song.

Can you tell this was an airline from the brand logo?

Delta created this separate airline to engage customers away from using JetBlue; specifically, the market for northeastern flights to Florida. What did the Song experience teach us about branding? It taught us that no amount of branding can help sell a product – though branding an airline Song, a word which makes little to no connection to airplanes and flying – started off in a downward spiral. As we saw when a random customer engaged with an employee, asking “So wait, are you an airline or a travel agency?”

Like you said in class, popular culture is created through the people in culture and regurgitated. The people demand and then the advertisers make it so.

Sex always sells, with the basic nature of humans being driven by the need to reproduce it’s an essential and easy target for advertisements. Like you showed in class through the high end fashion advertisements. Pictures of murdered woman and gang bangs with homosexual tendencies being displayed openly through magazines and billboards in urban arenas. Men always seemed the focal point of them, the advertisements that you showed had a male presence even if only in shadow.

Anthony J. Cortese said in “Constructed Bodies, Deconstructing Ads: Sexism in Advertising” that, “The perfect provocateur is not human; rather, she is a form or hollow shell representing a female figure. Accepted attractiveness is her only attribute. She is slender, typically tall and long-legged. Women are constantly held to this unrealistic standard of beauty. If they fail to attain it, they are led to feel guilty and ashamed” (Page 54).

The industry of advertising cannot change by it’s nature, it’s been created to sell through whatever means is necessary and the tragedy of the commons tell us that – people will act according to their own best interests even if those interests hurt the society on the whole.

Matthew Cole

Professor Meredith Goncalves

Imagery & Culture

March 11, 2014

DUE 2/18 1st Blog Post

Referring to the all FIVE readings we have reviewed so far, please define and explain the following terms: power, hegemony, sexism, the gaze, object, pedagogy, popular culture, spectacle, ways of looking, representation, consumer/consumption. Use examples from each of the readings to explain some of these key terms, how they relate to each other and to media and image-making. ~6-8 paragraphs. Be sure to include links and images! Give your post a title.